Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, Vol. 16, Iss. 2, April, 2012, pp. 185-204
@2012 Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences


The Game of Futsal as an Adaptive Process

Umberto C. Correa, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Fernando A. M. Alegre, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Andrea M. Freudenheim, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Suely dos Santos, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Go Tani, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

Abstract: Some researchers have described team sports as complex, open, and hierarchical systems. This study aimed to investigate and describe how the game of futsal could be characterized as a dynamic adaptive process. One game, which included participation by two amateur teams, was analyzed by examining players’ individual (space occupied, skills with and without ball) and collective actions (attacks and defenses). Data were collected through time-continuum notation, and were analyzed through frequencies and clustering, using trend analysis and multiple comparisons, and Ward’s minimum variance method with Euclidean distance, respectively. Results revealed four attack patterns for each team, with four defense patterns for one (Blue), and seven for the other (Red), and they showed within-pattern variability. All were performed in an unpredictable manner, with no absolute correspondence between attacks and defenses. The futsal game as an adaptive process was characterized by changing intra- and inter-patterns

Keywords: open system, hierarchy, complexity, adaptation, variability, self-organization